TABLE TENNIS SUPER FULL GUIDE

Contents

Introduction

Table tennis, known as the “national ball” of China, is a popular worldwide ball sport that involves offense, confrontation, and defense.
Table tennis originated in England, and the name “ping pong” originated in 1900, named after the “Ping Pong” sound it makes when struck. In January 1926, an international table tennis tournament was held in Berlin, Germany, in which 64 male players from nine countries participated. In December of the same year, the International Table Tennis Federation was officially established and named the European Championships in London as the first World Table Tennis Championships.
Table tennis organizations include the International Table Tennis Federation, the Asian Table Tennis Federation, the Chinese Table Tennis Association

History

1. Origin


In the late 19th century, tennis was a popular sport in Europe, but due to the limitations of the venue and weather, some college students in England moved the game indoors, using dining tables as tables, books as nets, and parchment as paddles to play on the tables.
In 1890, British athlete Gibb brought back some celluloid balls from the United States as toys for table tennis. Several British naval officers stationed in India happened to find it quite exciting to play tennis at a modest table. Later they replaced the less flexible solid ball with solid rubber, and then with a hollow plastic ball, and replaced the net racket with a wooden board to play this novel “tennis game” on the table, and so Table tennis was born.

2. Transformation

  • In 1903, the Englishman Goode invented the rubber racket, which strongly contributed to the development of table tennis technology.
  • Table tennis played in the 19th century
  • In 1926, the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) was officially established and decided to hold the first World Table Tennis Championship.
  • A total of 18 World Table Tennis Championships were held from 1926 to 1951, and most players around the world used rubber paddles with cylindrical particles on the surface. This added elasticity and friction when hitting the ball, which allowed the ball to have a certain amount of spin, thus creating a defensive style of play to cut downward spinning balls. This style of play was popular in Europe for a long time and many athletes won world championships using this style of play. The dominance of table tennis in this period was in Europe, where the Hungarian team was the most prominent, winning 57 of the 117 world championships, accounting for half of the European teams. However, this type of paddle could only be used to create downward spin.
  • In 1936, the 10th World Table Tennis Championships were held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, and the competition saw an amazing situation. The men’s team championship, played in Romania and Austria, was played from 21.00 on Sunday. Both sides sent three chippers, who, due to the same style of play and the close level of both sides, and both used mushroom tactics, refused to pick trips easily and tried to win from the mistakes of their opponents. The match was still 2:2 at three o’clock, and local regulations, which require public places to be closed at three o’clock, provoked police intervention and eventually took 31 hours for Austria to win 5:4.Among the numerous table tennis tournaments, the most prestigious is the World Table Tennis Championship, which was initially held once a year.
  • After 1957, the tournament was held once every two years.
  • In 1959, Chinese athletes began to take part in the international table tennis arena after Rong Guotuan won the men’s singles title at the 25th World Table Tennis Championship. Gradually, the straight racket near table fast attack style was formed with the technical style of “fast, accurate, fierce and changeable”.
  • In 1961, in the 26th World Championship, the Chinese team won the men’s team championship for the first time by both passing the European barrier and defeating the Japanese players who played with long draws on the far table and their secret weapon, the “arc ball”. The team won the 27th and 28th consecutive men’s team championships. The advantages of the Chinese table tennis near table fast attack are the close position, fast speed, flexible movements, and free use of the forehand and backhand, which is another step forward from the Japanese long-draw method. In the 1960s, China’s technical level of table tennis was at the forefront of the world, and the dominance of the game was shifted from the Japanese team to the Chinese team. This was the second major improvement in the level of table tennis.
  • While Chinese table tennis was developing, European athletes drew lessons from their failures and, after nearly twenty years of hard work, finally took the strengths of the Japanese arc-ball technique and the Chinese close table fast attack style and created an advanced style of play suitable for them, namely the arc-ball-based combined with fast attack style. The representative figures are Hungary’s Kramper and Jonil. The main technique of fast attack combined with arc ball is to use the backhand fast attack as the main technique, and to use the backhand fast dial fast attack to strive for the initiative, and to use the forehand to pull the arc ball to find the opportunity to kill as the scoring means. The representative figures are Sweden’s Bengtsson, Czech’s Orlovsky, etc. These two styles of play are characterized by strong placement, fast speed, ability to pull and hit, low pull and high hit, and more room for maneuver. The game of table tennis advanced to a new height where placement and speed were closely combined. This was the third major improvement in the level of table tennis.
  • Since the 1970s, due to the strengthening of international interaction and study and research, various playing styles have taken on each other’s strengths and weaknesses, resulting in faster development and improvement of table tennis techniques. For example, the Chinese team’s table tennis playing styles and techniques, such as close table fast attack, straight racket fast attack combined with arc ball, and horizontal racket fast attack combined with arc ball, have been developed and innovated, and have achieved excellent results in international competitions. The International Table Tennis Federation has 186 member associations and is one of the larger sports organizations in the world.
  • In 1982, the International Olympic Committee adopted the decision to include table tennis as an official sport in the Olympic Games from 1988, which promoted the faster development of the sport.
  • In 2001, it was changed to a seven-game, four-win or five-game, three-win format (11 points per game).
  • On June 9, 2017, the official website of the International Table Tennis Federation announced that table tennis mixed doubles will become an official competition event in the Tokyo Olympics, and before that, IOC President Bach revealed that the IOC will hold an executive committee in Lausanne will meet to decide whether to add a mixed doubles event to the table tennis competition in the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, and now the official website of the International Table Tennis Federation announced that the Tokyo Olympics will establish a table tennis mixed doubles This decision is good news for both the Chinese table tennis team and the host Japan, after all, China and Japan have the strength to compete for this gold medal.

3. Development

The sport of table tennis has evolved through approximately six phases.

  • The heyday of table tennis in Europe, from 1926 to 1951. During this period, changes in rules and reforms in equipment contributed strongly to the development of technology. For example, the table was increased from 4.8 feet long to 5 feet, the net was reduced from 6.5 inches high to 6 inches, and the ball was changed from soft to hard. Regulations were also made on the match time: a singles match with two wins in three sets should not exceed one hour, a match with three wins in five sets should not exceed one hour and 45 minutes, and the Nagar style serve with finger spinning balls was prohibited.
  • From 1952 to 1959, Japanese table tennis shook the world of ping pong.
  • From 1959 to 1969, the Chinese table tennis team rose to prominence and the North Korean table tennis team emerged.
  • From 1971 to 1979, the European team revived and the Chinese table tennis team regrouped.
  • From 1981 to 1988, the Chinese table tennis team climbs to the top of the world and becomes the “Chinese team versus the world team”.
  • After 1991, the world’s table tennis teams played against Chinese teams with outstanding results, with European teams being 5-6 years ahead. Chinese table tennis came out of the doldrums and climbed back to the top.

4. Ping Pong in China

After the founding of New China, Chairman Mao Zedong called for “the development of sports to enhance the physical fitness of the people”, and table tennis was well developed throughout the country because it was easy and simple to play, and in 1959, table tennis player Rong Guotuan won the first world championship for China, which caught the world’s attention. The country was excited. At the 26th World Table Tennis Championships, Zhuang Zedong and Qiu Zhonghui won the men’s and women’s singles titles respectively, and the Chinese team won the men’s team title. From this time on, Chinese table tennis began to dominate the world, and the sport continued to flourish. By 2005, China had won 143.5 titles, including 100.5 in the World Championships, 27 in the World Cup, and 16 in the Olympics. It has also won all seven gold cups at the World Championships three times and all four gold medals at the Olympics twice.
Secondly, the conditions for table tennis are not harsh and participatory. Men, women, and children can play, all over the world can play, indoor and outdoor can play, rich or poor can play. The conditions are good enough to play on a senior table, the conditions are poor enough to play on a cement table, there is no table with a few tables to put together can also play. The weather is good in the open air can play, in the event of heavy winds and snow in a small room can play. Ping pong is a full-body sport that is healthy for the body, brain, and mind. Compared to sports such as soccer and basketball, there is no direct physical confrontation and you can control the amount of exercise, which is very popular. In short, the sport is particularly suited to China’s national conditions and has gained a high degree of popularity among the people.
Over the years Chinese players have been extremely outstanding in table tennis: Wang Tao, Kong Linghui, and Liu Guoliang in the men’s event, and a star-studded group of champion players such as Deng Yaping, Qiao Hong, Wang Nan, and Zhang Yining in the women’s event. Review the number of gold medals won by the Chinese table tennis team in previous Olympic Games: 2 in Seoul, 3 in Barcelona, 4 in Atlanta, 4 in Sydney, 3 in Athens …… For more than 100 years the Chinese table tennis team has been playing as the “Dream Team”. The table tennis program is also one of the most solid gold medals for the Chinese delegation at the Olympic Games.
Since its inception in 1952 to 2020, the Chinese table tennis team has gone through a stormy journey of 68 years, and although there have been lows in performance and detours in training, it has always been in the camp of the world’s strongest teams, creating a miracle of a sports team that has thrived for half a century.
History of the Chinese Table Tennis Team

  • In 1904, Wang Daowu, the owner of a stationery store in Shanghai, bought back 10 sets of table tennis equipment from Japan, and from then on table tennis was introduced to China. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the sport of table tennis in China was given a new lease of life under the attention and care of the Communist Party of China and the People’s Government.
  • In October 1952, a new page in the history of table tennis in China was opened with the opening ceremony of the National Table Tennis Championships hosted by the All China Sports Federation at Peking University and attended by FIVB President Montague. At the same time, the Table Tennis Department of the All China Sports Federation joined the FIVB. Since its establishment in 1952, the Chinese table tennis team has gone through a process of development from defeat to victory, from weakness to strength.
  • In the spring of 1953, the Chinese table tennis team participated for the first time in the 20th World Table Tennis Championship in Bucharest. In the tournament, although it defeated teams from Austria, Sweden, and West Germany, it lost to strong teams such as Great Britain and Hungary respectively. In the team competition, our men’s team was rated tenth in the first level and the women’s team was rated third in the second level.
  • In the summer of 1954, the Chinese table tennis team went to Hungary to participate in the 12th World University Games, winning second and fourth place in the men’s singles, third place in the women’s singles, and third place in the men’s doubles, taking second place behind Hungary in total points.
  • In 1955, the Chinese table tennis team participated in the Second International Youth Friendship Games in Warsaw, where our players made their debut, winning second and third place in the men’s singles, third place in the women’s singles, and second place in the mixed doubles, respectively, over the best players from Japan, Romania, and France.
  • In March 1956, the Chinese table tennis team defeated the Asian champions South Vietnam and the United States and lost to Great Britain and Japan in the 23rd World Ping Pong Tournament in Tokyo. At the 24th World Ping Pong Tournament in Stockholm, the Chinese table tennis men’s and women’s teams defeated the seeded teams, Romania and Great Britain, respectively, and both won the right to the final. China’s Wang Chuanyao defeated Japan’s best player Ichiro Ogimura in the team competition, and the women’s player Sun Meiying defeated Great Britain’s best player Ann Hayden. The women’s player Sun Meiying defeated the British player Ann Hayden, which initially showed the power of straight racket two-sided attack and left pushing right attacking style. The Chinese men’s team rose from sixth place in the first level to fourth place in the first level, and the women’s team rose from eleventh place in the first level to third place in the first level.
  • In 1959, at the 25th World Table Tennis Championships in Dortmund, West Germany, Rong Guotuan overcame the odds and won the first world championship for China in a world sports competition.
  • In 1961, Beijing hosted the 26th World Ping Pong Tournament, the first international tournament of the new China. On the eve of the tournament, the National Sports Commission put the whole country’s efforts into selecting 108 table tennis players for intensive training, which would be a great contribution to China’s table tennis career. The main players of the men’s and women’s teams, who mainly played with straight and fast attacks, showed their strength in the tournament, and the men’s team won the team championship for the first time. In the women’s singles final, Qiu Zhonghui defeated Hungarian Gao Ji’an in five games and won the Gee Geist Cup, becoming the first women’s world champion in new China.
  • In 1963, the 27th World Ping Pong Tournament was held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, where the Chinese table tennis team fought bravely against the world’s best players and won the three world championships in the men’s team, men’s singles, and men’s doubles. At the 28th World Ping Pong Tournament held in Ljubljana, former Yugoslavia, Chinese table tennis players won five titles, four runner-ups, and seven third places in seven events, and the Chinese team won the men’s team championship for the third time in a row and Zhuang Zedong won the men’s singles championship for the third time. Chinese women’s table tennis also made a new breakthrough, defeating the four-time champion Japan in the final and holding the Kobyln Cup for the first time. Later, due to the Cultural Revolution, the country missed the 29th and 30th World Championships.
  • In 1971, the country returned to the World Series, participating in the 31st World Series in Nagoya, Japan. After a six-year absence from the world, the Chinese team finally won the men’s team gold cup after walking on thin ice. The Chinese women’s team reached the final but eventually lost to their old enemy Japan. In the men’s singles, China’s best result was second in the men’s doubles and third in the men’s singles, while the Chinese women’s table tennis team, which lost in the women’s team competition, got two gold medals in the women’s singles and women’s doubles. In addition, Emily Lin also teamed up with Zhang Xielin to win the gold medal in mixed doubles, the first time a Chinese table tennis player has won a gold medal in a mixed doubles event. So far, all seven trophies of the World Series were engraved with Chinese names. During this period, with the approval of the Central Government, the Chinese table tennis delegation officially invited the U.S. table tennis delegation to visit, opening the door to 22 years of isolation between China and the U.S., which was hailed as “ping pong diplomacy” by international public opinion.
  • In 1973, the Chinese table tennis team sent 21 athletes to the 32nd World Ping Pong Tournament in Yugoslavia, where the men’s and women’s teams lost the team competition. In the men’s singles competition, Chinese table tennis player Xi Enting became the first Chinese straight-back rubber men’s singles champion after overcoming Olofsky, Stepančić and Johnson in succession. At the 33rd World Ping Pong Championship in Kolkata, India, the men’s team won back the Swaythling Cup with a 5:3 victory over Yugoslavia in the final. The Chinese women also won the women’s team final against their old rivals Korea, taking back the Kobyln Cup after a decade of absence.
  • In 1977, the 50th anniversary of the FIVB, the birthplace of table tennis, England hosted the 34th World Series. The Chinese table tennis team went all the way through the tournament, defeating Japan in the final to successfully defend the Swaythling Cup. The Chinese women’s table tennis team also won the Kobyln Cup at the tournament, having spent the past two years practicing their skills and tactics against their main rivals, North Korea and South Korea. The Chinese men’s team suffered many setbacks in the 35th World Series, losing to Hungary in the men’s team. The women’s team, on the other hand, had a comprehensive victory. In the women’s team final, China won the championship over North Korea, and in the women’s singles match, Tong Ling crushed Park Young Soon’s dream of a “triple crown” by winning three consecutive games after losing the first two. Zhang Li, Zhang Deying, Ge Xin’ai, and Yan Guili also took first and second place in the women’s doubles.
  • In 1981, the 36th World Ping Pong Tournament opened in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. The Chinese men’s table tennis team made a beautiful comeback, making the words “CHINA CHINA” once again engraved on the Sveithlin Cup! The Chinese women’s table tennis team also successfully defended their title, and in the following matches, the Chinese team took all the gold and silver medals in five individual events: Guo Yuehua and Tong Ling won the men’s and women’s singles titles; Cai Zhenhua and Li Zhenbiao won the men’s doubles title; Zhang Deying and Cao Yanhua won the women’s doubles title; Xie Saike and Huang Junqun won the mixed doubles gold medal. It is an unprecedented miracle in the history of the World Series that one team won seven championships and took first and second place in five individual events in one World Series. The news of the Chinese team’s triumph at the 36th World Ping Pong Tournament quickly spread around the world, and the world was stunned as the Chinese team announced to the world with seven dazzling gold medals that China was a table tennis powerhouse. Such an achievement was unshakeable for years afterward.
    From Tokyo in 1983 to Gothenburg in 1985, to New Delhi in 1987, the Chinese team demonstrated its extraordinary strength at all three World Championships, winning 18 of the 21 titles in each tournament. However, in the late 1980s, the Chinese men’s table tennis team concerns gradually emerged. The European origin of the cross-board curved ball style gradually became the mainstream of the world ping-pong world, and the disadvantages of the traditional straight-board fast-attack style of Chinese table tennis were exposed.
  • In 1988, when table tennis entered the Olympic Games for the first time, the Chinese team was defeated in Seoul, winning only two titles in men’s doubles and women’s singles.
  • In 1989, on the recommendation of Xu Shaofa, Cai Zhenhua, who had returned from Italy, took up the responsibility of head coach of the men’s team at this time and led the Chinese table tennis team through the mud. At the 2nd World Cup team tournament held that year, the Chinese men’s table tennis team won the men’s team title by beating Sweden in the final. In the same year, at the 40th World Cup in Dortmund, the Chinese men’s team lost 0:5 to Sweden, losing the Severin Cup, which they had kept for eight years, and the men’s singles, men’s doubles, and mixed doubles titles were won by Sweden, Germany, and Korea respectively.
  • In 1991, at the World Series in Chiba, Japan, the Chinese men’s table tennis team only won a seventh-place for men, and the Chinese women’s table tennis team also lost to the Korean team in the team final and had to give up the Kobyln Cup, which was settled in China in 1975. But it was at this World Series that Chinese women’s legend Deng Yaping won the women’s singles championship, beginning a journey that would sweep the world of women’s table tennis.
  • In 1992, at the Chinese Grand Prix of Table Tennis in Chengdu, Liu Guoliang, at the age of 16, surprised the audience with a “straight racket horizontal stroke”. He defeated the world’s best players such as Waldner and Kim Ze-soo in this tournament, and new hope for the traditional straight-board fast attacking style of Chinese table tennis was rekindled. At the Barcelona Olympics in the same year, Wang Tao and Lv Lin won the men’s doubles final against German stars Roskow and Fitzner. This Olympic gold medal sounded the trumpet for the recovery of the Chinese men’s table tennis team. Deng Yaping also won two gold medals in the women’s singles and doubles, becoming the brightest star of the Barcelona Olympics. The following year, at the 42nd World Ping Championship, the Chinese men’s team lost to Sweden again and failed to win the title. At this World Series, a new term came into view: overseas teams. In this context, overseas corps refers to those who go out from China to represent other associations in international competitions. In the women’s singles competition of this World Series, Qiao Hong, the champion of the 40th World Series, and Deng Yaping, the champion of the 41st World Series, were eliminated by Shi Jie, who represented Germany, and Jing Junhong, who represented Singapore.
  • In 1995, the 43rd World Ping Championship kicked off in Tianjin. This was the second World Series to be held in China since Beijing hosted the 26th World Series in 1961. The Chinese men’s table tennis team made it to the final, defeating Sweden 3-2 to win the Sveithling Cup again. Inspired by the turnaround of the men’s team, the Chinese team repeated the glory of the 36th World Series at this year’s World Series, winning all seven championships again, including three gold medals for the women’s team, women’s singles, and women’s doubles by Deng Yaping alone; Wang Tao and Liu Wei won the mixed doubles championship for the third time in a row; junior Kong Linghui and Liu Guoliang met in the final of the men’s singles, and Kong finally won the championship, which was also the first world championship won by a Chinese cross-board male player. This was also the first singles world champion won by Chinese men. In the same year, Xu Yinsheng was elected as the fifth President of FIVB.
  • In 1996, the Chinese table tennis team once again won all four gold medals at the Atlanta Olympics, with junior Liu Guoliang winning the men’s singles final over his senior brother Wang Tao, by which time the younger generation of Chinese players had fully matured. The 44th World Series returned to Manchester, England in ’97, where the Chinese table tennis team won six gold medals, with only the men’s singles title going to Sweden’s Valdeneur. The following year at the Bangkok Asian Games, the Chinese team again lost the gold medal in the men’s singles, while youngster Wang Nan won four gold medals in the women’s team, women’s singles, women’s doubles, and mixed doubles, thus filling the vacancy of the first main force of the Chinese women’s team after Deng Yaping’s retirement.
  • In 1999, because of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, the FIBA decided to separate the single and team competitions. Liu Guoliang won the men’s singles title in the final of the 45th World Ping Championship in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, where the Chinese team won all five gold medals, beating his teammate Ma Lin in five games.
  • In 2000, the Chinese men’s team lost 2:3 to their old rivals Sweden in the 45th World Series team competition held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. There were two men’s singles champions on each side of the squad at the time, making a total of three Grand Slam winners, and the final was hailed as the final Battle of Heavenly Kings as the world table tennis world had not seen such a star-studded matchup for many years afterward. At the Sydney Olympics in September of the same year, the last major tournament of the small ball era, the Chinese table tennis team once again won the gold medal, with Kong Linghui becoming the third Grand Slam winner in the world when he defeated Waldner in the men’s singles final. On October 1 of the same year, the FIVB changed the diameter of the balls used in the tournament to 40 mm, a change that had a big impact on existing table tennis technology. One month later, the first world competition of the Big Ball era: the Men’s World Cup started in Yangzhou, China, where Chinese table tennis player Ma Lin, who was not selected for the Sydney Olympic squad, won the World Cup and became the first world champion of the Big Ball era. The 46th World Cup, held in Osaka, Japan, was the first World Cup of the Big Ball Era, and the Chinese team won all seven gold medals again, making it the third time that the Chinese team had won the World Cup.
    Four years later, at the Beijing Olympics, the Chinese team created a miracle in the world of table tennis. From the team competition to the singles competition, from the confrontation between men and women, Chinese table tennis players always ended up with the victory. They won the men’s and women’s team titles and swept the top three singles matches.
  • In 2012, at the London Olympics, the Chinese table tennis team again won all four gold medals, the fourth time in history. The men’s singles Zhang Jike achieved the Grand Slam, the women’s singles Li Xiaoxia and Ding Ning were the first and second runners-up, and the men’s and women’s teams beat South Korea and Japan 3:0 respectively in the final. Once again, the Chinese team consolidated its unassailable dominance.
  • In 2015, the Chinese table tennis team performed smoothly in two world competitions, the World Series and the World Cup, and became the biggest winner at the FIVB Awards Ceremony, with Ma Long and Liu Shiwen winning the best male and female athletes.
  • On July 18, 2016, the Chinese Olympic delegation for the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics was established with the following table tennis team roster.
    Female athletes: Li Xiaoxia, Ding Ning, Liu Shiwen, Zhu Yuling, and male athletes: Ma Long, Xu Xin, Zhang Jike, and Fan Zhendong. [8
  • In 2016, the Chinese table tennis team fought tenaciously and courageously in the Rio Olympics, achieving 4 gold medals and 2 silver medals, and successfully completing its participation. At the same time, the high fighting spirit and tenacity of the athletes on the field showed strong positive energy and won the wide attention of the whole Chinese people.
  • As of November 10, 2019, 116 Chinese table tennis teams became world champions and won 240 gold medals, including 28 Olympic gold medals, including 6 team champions and 22 individual champions; 145 World Series gold medals, including 42 team champions and 103 individual champions; 67 World Cup gold medals, including 21 team champions and 46 individual champions (including 1 women’s (including one women’s doubles champion). Glory, always with the Chinese table tennis team. The national ball, again, reminds Chinese table tennis people not to forget their mission.

Hardware Requirements

Site requirements

1、Area facilities
Olympic table tennis matches are played in a gymnasium with the following specific standards.
Including 4 or 8 tables (depending on the competition method) of standard size (8 meters wide, 16 meters long, ceiling height shall not be less than 4 meters) of the official competition venue, the competition area shall also include the aisle next to the competition table, electronic displays, players, coaches’ seats, competition officials’ area (technical representatives, head referees, arbitrators, etc.), photographers’ area, TV camera area, and prize awarding area, etc. The area required for the awarding of prizes.
2、Ground in the pavilion
The floor of the table tennis court shall be wooden or removable plastic flooring of the brand and type approved by FIBA. The floor should be flexible and free of markings and signs of other sports. The color of the floor should not be too light or strongly reflective, but can be red or dark red; no excessive use of oil or wax to avoid slippage.
3、The temperature inside the pavilion
The airflow rate of the playing area in the table tennis arena is controlled within 0.2 to 0.3 m/s, and the temperature is about 20 to 25°C or 5°C below the outdoor temperature.


Lighting Requirements


The Olympic Games require an illumination level of 1500 to 2500 lux for all tables in order to ensure clear images for television broadcast. If additional temporary light sources are required for reasons such as television broadcasting, the angle of the light source shining down from above the ceiling should be greater than 75 degrees. The illumination level of the rest of the playing area shall not be less than 1/2 of the illumination level of the playing surface, and the light source shall not be less than 5 meters from the ground. The surrounding area of the venue should generally be dark in color, and the illumination level on the spectator stand should be significantly lower than the illumination level of the competition area, avoiding dazzling light sources and natural light from unshaded windows.


Equipment specifications


Field Specifications The playing area shall be enclosed by a 0.75-meter high baffle of the same dark color and separated from adjacent playing areas and spectators. The playing area of each table is 8m x 16m. There are tables, nets, balls, baffles, referees’ tables, referees’ chairs, scorers, etc. At least two electronic scoreboards will be used on each table, four for the final. The electronic scoreboards are placed behind or at the corners of both sides of the table tennis playing field, with the names of the players, their countries or regions, the time, and the score of each game, so that the spectators in the stands can clearly see the score on the display. There is also a large electronic display in the stadium that is clearly visible to all spectators and can show information about all tables of the match at the same time. For final matches or when playing with only one table, the referee uses a microphone to facilitate the viewing of the match by the entire audience. Equipment specifications – 76cm high, 2.74m long, 1.525m wide, dark green or blue in color. Net – 15.25 cm high, 15.25 cm long protruding from the table, the same color as the table. Ball – white or orange in color and lusterless, hard ball of 40 mm in diameter and 2.7 grams in weight. Block – 0.75 m high and 1.4 or 2 m wide, the same color as the table. All equipment is specially approved and specified by the FIVB. The same brand of equipment must be used throughout the tournament including training facilities.


Racket types


1. Rubber sponge racket


A sponge is a rubber that has an upward grain and is equal in height and diameter. It has good elasticity, stable and fast-hitting speed, and a slightly sinking feeling, and is suitable for players who are quick to attack from the near table. If you feel that you are flexible with your wrists, but not strong enough with your arms and waist, it is better to choose a speed-based rubber racket.


2. Raw rubber sponge racket


Raw rubber is rubber with upward grains and a diameter larger than the height. It has a sink to the ball and a weak spin to the ball and is suitable for near-mid table players.


3. Anti-rubber sponge racket


This is a type of rubber that is applied with the rough side down and the sticky side up. It has a strong spin, so players who play with spin (e.g. curling, chipping) must know how to play with it. Of course, it is easy to create spin and to eat spin, so it is difficult to master.


4. Long rubber sponge racket


Generally speaking, rubbers with a height of more than 1.5 mm are called long rubbers. This type of rubber is soft, with long, thin grains and little support. The ability to actively create spin is very poor, and it mainly relies on the strong spin of the incoming ball or the high impulse to increase the spin of the return. Because of the special character of long rubber, it is not good for children to master and it can interfere with ball sense, so the state has banned the use of long rubber in children’s matches. It is also not suitable for beginners and less-skilled players.


5. Defensive sponge racket


The racket is mainly used for chipping, which is a rotating style of play, so the cross-court chipper is mainly a backhand player, and the backhand is very fancy.
There are many different types of racquets, such as “offensive”, “comprehensive” and “defensive”, which are available for fans to choose from.
For beginners, it is better to choose a low-grade racket that is easy to control the ball to correct the action. After the level of play gradually improves and a stable style of play is formed, then you can choose a middle and high-grade base plate that is more targeted. The middle and low-grade rackets are not necessarily bad, which piece of the racket is good to use when you are comfortable with it.


Ball specifications

  • Table tennis balls are available in two types: “seamed” and “seamless”.
  • The “Small Ball” Becomes the “Big Ball”
  • In the early 1980s, after the Chinese table tennis team won seven titles in the 36th World Table Tennis Championship, it was suggested that the table tennis balls be made larger and the nets are made taller, but this suggestion was not taken seriously. Since then, table tennis technology has continued to evolve, with faster and faster ball speeds and stronger spins, and many athletes playing against each other with fewer rounds; sometimes the ball flies like lightning and the winner is already decided before the audience can see it, weakening the interest of table tennis fans.
  • In 1999, at the FIVB Congress held during the 45th World Tournament in Davie, the “Big Ball Reform” proposal was shelved because it did not receive a three-fourths majority vote.
  • On February 23, 2000, the FIVB Extraordinary General Assembly and Congress in Kuala Lumpur adopted the 40mm ball reform proposal, deciding to use a 40mm diameter ball with a weight of 2.7 grams to replace the 38mm ball from October 1, 2000. Single table tennis matches were originally generally played in two out of three sets or three out of five sets (21 points per set).
  • Starting July 1, 2014, international table tennis tournaments will use a new, polymer-based plastic ball to replace celluloid, which has been used for 123 years to manufacture table tennis balls.
  • Until June 30, 2016, both celluloid and “new material” table tennis balls will be legally available on the market, and on July 1, 2016, celluloid balls will be completely retired.

Competition Rules

Project Settings

  • Category:
    There are 3 events: men’s singles, women’s singles, and mixed team.
  • The number of athletes:
    The participants of each event are divided into 32 male athletes and 32 female athletes, a total of 64.
  • Medals:
    The top three in each event will be awarded gold, silver, and bronze medals respectively.

Competition System

The competition is divided into 11 games (the 21-point system has been implemented for a long time, and there was even a 100-point system at the earliest) using a five-game, three-win (team) or seven-game, four-win (individual) system. The tournament is divided into teams and individual events (men’s singles, women’s singles, men’s doubles, women’s doubles, mixed doubles).

Serve Rules

Choice of serve, receive and orientation

  • The power to choose to serve, receive and venue shall be decided by choosing the obverse side of the coin. The person who chooses the right side may choose to serve first or receive first, or choose to be on a particular side first.
  • After one player has chosen to serve or receive the ball first or has chosen the court, the other player shall have the right to make another choice.
  • After each serve twice the receiving side becomes the serving side, and so on until the end of the set, or until both sides reach 10 points to implement the rotating serve method, when the serving and receiving order remains the same, and each player only serves one point in turn.
  • A side that plays in one direction in one set should switch to another direction in the next set of the court. In the singles deciding set, when one side is full of 5 points, it should exchange the orientation.

Handling of errors in serve and receive order and orientation

  • Once the referee finds that the serving and receiving order is wrong, the match shall be suspended immediately and the player who should serve or receive the ball shall serve or receive the ball according to the order established at the beginning of the match; in doubles, the match shall be continued according to the order established by the party who has the right to serve first in the set when the error is found.
  • Once the referee finds that the players should exchange their positions but have not done so, he/she shall immediately suspend the match and correct the positions the players are standing in according to the order established at the beginning of the match and then continue the match according to the score on the court. In any case, all scores before the discovery of the error are valid.
  • When the ball sent by the server touches the net, it is called “rubbing the net”, the referee shall make the server serve again. Until no net is wiped, or other serving errors are made

Legal Return

After the opponent has served or returned the ball, the player must hit the ball so that it goes directly over or around the net device (including touching the net device) and then touches the opponent’s table area. In any of the above cases, it is a legal return.

Re-serve

A re-serve shall be awarded if the following occurs in a round where no points are awarded.

  1. If the ball served by the server touches the net device as it goes over or around the net device and thereafter becomes a legal serve or is blocked by the receiver or his partner.
  2. If the ball is served when the server or his partner is not ready, and neither the receiver nor his partner attempts to hit the ball.
  3. If the player fails to serve legally, return legally or comply with the rules because of an interference beyond the player’s control, such as the lights going out. (If a player collides with a partner or trips over a block and fails to return the ball legally, a re-serve cannot be awarded).
  4. A suspension of play announced by the referee or assistant referee. For example: (i) to correct a mistake in the order or orientation of the serve or receive; (ii) to implement a rotation of serves; (iii) to warn or penalize a player; (iv) to interfere with the playing environment so that the outcome of the round is likely to be affected (e.g. an outside ball entering the court or a sudden noise sufficient to surprise the player).

Awarding a point

A point shall be awarded for the loss of a point for any of the following circumstances in a round other than a re-serve.

  1. failure to serve legally.
  2. failure to return a legal serve.
  3. blocking.
  4. Two consecutive hits (e.g., the thumb and racket of the player hitting the ball in succession).
  5. The ball touches the home table area and then touches the home table again, except for the serve.
  6. Striking the ball with a racket surface that does not conform to the regulations.
  7. In doubles, the player fails to hit the ball in the correct order except for serving or receiving.
  8. The referee awarding penalty points.
  9. Other violations that have been enumerated.

One set match

In a set match, the side that scores 11 points first is the winner; after the score is tied at 10, the side that scores 2 more points first is the winner.

One game

  1. A match shall be played in seven games of four wins or five games of three wins.
  2. A match shall be played consecutively, but between sets, any one player shall have the right to request a break of not more than two minutes.

Rotation of serve method

  1. If a set has not been completed by 15 minutes (except when both players have scored at least 9 points); or at any time before that, at the request of both players, the rotational serve method shall be applied. The timekeeper shall open the meter when the first ball of each set comes into play; stop the meter when play is suspended and reopen it when play resumes. Game stoppage includes: balls flying out of the playing area to re-entering the playing area, wiping sweat, exchanging positions in the deciding game and replacing damaged game equipment. When a game has been played for 15 minutes, the timekeeper should report “time is up”.
    2、When the time is up, the ball is still in the game state, the referee shall immediately announce the suspension of the game, and the player who is suspended shall serve to continue the game. When the time is up, the ball is not in the state of play, the ball shall be served by the receiver of the previous round to continue the game.
  2. In the event of the above, the counters shall report the number of shots after each shot by the receiving team. When using the rotational serve method, the counters shall report the number in English or in any other language acceptable to both players and the referee.
  3. Thereafter, each player serves one point in turn until the end of the set, and if the receiving team makes thirteen legal returns, the serving team is awarded one point.
  4. Once the rotational serve method has been implemented, the remainder of the game must continue until the end of that game

Project Skills

Grip Method

Straight racket

  • (1) Fast attack type grip. The second knuckle of the index finger and the first knuckle of the thumb in front of the racket are in a pincer shape, the distance between the two fingers is 1-2cm, the handle of the racket is attached to the tiger mouth, and the other three fingers are naturally bent and attached to the upper 1/3 of the racket.
  • (2) Arc circle grip. The difference is that the thumb and index finger form a small ring, the other three fingers naturally overlap on the back of the racket, and the first knuckle of the middle finger is on the extension line of the handle.

Horizontal racket

The horizontal racket grip is the same as the hand grip. The middle finger, ring finger and little finger are naturally bent to hold the handle, the thumb is on the front of the racket near the middle finger, the index finger is naturally straight and placed diagonally on the back of the racket. When attacking the ball with the forehand, move the index finger slightly upwards, and when attacking the ball with the backhand, move the thumb slightly upwards

Offensive Method

Fast attack type

There are three common ways to hold the racket (including left pushing and right attacking and two-sided attacking).

  1. Stick the right side of the racket handle at the third joint of the index finger, press the right shoulder of the racket with the second joint of the index finger, bend the first joint of the index finger naturally inward, and press the first joint of the thumb against the left shoulder of the racket (the distance between the thumb and index finger should be moderate). The other three fingers are naturally bent and overlapped diagonally, with the first knuckle of the middle finger resting on the back of the racket to keep the racket stable.
    With this grip, the wrist is more flexible. You can use the wrist action to send out balls with similar action but different rotation and landing point when serving; you can also play diagonal and straight balls flexibly; it is also good for handling balls inside the table, such as hitting the ball from the backhand position with the backhand and then hitting the ball from the forehand position, and attacking the ball from the backhand position with the backhand and then attacking the ball with the side forehand, which is good for the coordination of the two technical actions of the forehand and backhand. For the middle chasing ball, the wrist can naturally drop down and adjust the shape of the racket through the wrist to make a reasonable return to the incoming ball. When using this grip for forehand attack, the thumb and middle finger coordinate the force, the index finger is relatively relaxed, the ring finger is slightly away from the middle finger, and the fingertips lightly rest on the back of the racket to maintain the stability of the racket during the force. When attacking the ball with the backhand or pushing the ball, the index finger and the middle finger coordinate the force, and the thumb is relatively relaxed. When using wrist force (including forehand and backhand), the middle finger is the main force, while the thumb and index finger keep the racket stable and make auxiliary force.
  2. The grip is basically the same as the first one, but the distance between the thumb and index finger is larger (pincer shape is larger). This grip is good for the upper arm and forearm to concentrate the force. Therefore, the middle and far table attack, forehand attack, snapping ball are more powerful. However, the distance between the thumb and index finger is larger and the grip is deeper, which has a certain impact on the wrist flexibility and is poor for handling in-table balls, spin balls, pushing and blocking balls and body chasing balls.
  3. The right side of the handle is stuck between the second and third joints of the index finger, the left and right shoulders of the racket are pressed by the first joint of the thumb and index finger, the distance between the two fingers is moderate (but smaller than the first grip), the back of the racket is held by the left side of the first knuckle of the middle finger, the ring finger and the little finger are folded diagonally under the middle finger, and the ring finger is used to assist the middle finger to hold the back of the racket, so that the racket remains smooth.
    This grip is used by some players who attack from both sides. The advantage of this grip is that when attacking the ball with the backhand, the forearm is lifted and the racket head is facing upwards, which is conducive to the backhand high pressure hitting and makes the ball hit fast and powerful. This grip, because of the sinking hand, is more coordinated when attacking the middle force ball. Because the distance between the thumb and index finger is small, the wrist is more flexible, so it is easy to deal with the ball inside the table, and it is also better for the sudden attack plus the ball, but the disadvantage is that it is difficult to hit the ball at high pressure for the forehand off-body ball because of the sagging shape of the racket. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to hit the ball at high pressure on forehand off-body shots because of the sagging racket shape.

Attacking skills

Body posture

Both feet open and shoulder width or slightly wider than shoulder width, both knees slightly flexed, the forefoot on the ground (mainly to the inside of the foot stirrup), toes slightly hard pressure, heel slightly off the ground, the center of gravity is placed between the two feet, the upper body slightly leaning forward, abdomen, holding the racket arm naturally bent, straight grip elbow slightly outward, racket placed on the right front of the abdomen, wrist naturally relaxed, racket head pointing to the right oblique front, horizontal grip elbow down, forearm naturally flat lift The forearm is naturally flat, the wrist is naturally relaxed, the racket head is pointing up, and the non-racket holding arm is naturally bent to the left side of the body. Both eyes on the incoming ball.

Stance

The way of standing is also different for different playing styles. For the straight racket left pushing right attacking style of play, generally the left foot is slightly in front of the right foot, and the left foot position is basically on the extension line of the left line of the table. The distance between the body and the end line of the table is about 40 cm.

Types of play

It can be divided into 6 major types.

  • (1) Fast attacking style.
  • (2) Curve style.
  • (3) Curve combined with fast attack.
  • (4) Fast attack combined with arcing.
  • (5) Chipping-based chipping style of play.
  • (6) Chipping and attacking combination of chipping style of play.

In the international ping pong world, there are mainly the following playing styles.

  • (1) Straight left pushing and right attacking, such as Jiang Penglong of Taiwan, Ryu Chengmin of Korea, Yang Ying of China.
  • (2) Straight cross-court arc combined with fast attack, such as Ma Lin, Wang Hao, Li Jing, Xu Xin of China.
  • (3) Cross-court arc combined with fast attack, such as Kong Linghui, Wang Nan, Wang Liqin of China.
  • (4) Cross-court fast attack combined with arc circle, such as Deng Yaping and Zhang Yining of China.
  • (5) Combination of chipping and attacking, e.g., Joo Se-hyuk and Kim Kyung-e of Korea, Ding Song of China.

Serving style

(A) Forehand serve running ball
Characteristics:

ball speed, long landing point, big impulse, serve to the opponent’s right big corner or middle left position, more threatening to the opponent.

Key points:
  • ① the ball should not be thrown too high;
  • ② increase the swing speed at the moment of hitting;
  • ③ the first landing point should be close to the end line of the table;
  • ④ the point is the same height as the net or slightly lower than the net.
(B) Backhand and downward spinning ball
Characteristics:

The ball is fast, long and impulsive, sent to the opponent’s right big corner or middle left position, which is more threatening to the opponent.

Key points:
  • ① the ball should not be thrown too high;
  • ② increase the swing speed at the moment of hitting;
  • ③ the first landing point should be close to the end line of the table;
  • ④ the point is the same height as the net or slightly lower than the net.

Characteristics:

Fast ball speed, low arc, big forward impulse, forcing the opponent to retreat to receive the ball, which is good for attacking, often used in conjunction with the sharp underspin ball.

Key points:
  • ① The hitting point should be at the left front side of the body with the net or slightly lower than the net;
  • ② Pay attention to the wrist shaking force;
  • ③ The first landing point is near the end line of the table area.

(C) serve short ball

characteristics:

hitting action is small, fast, the ball falls to the other side of the table after the second jump does not come out, so that the other side is not easy to grab the power to pull, punch or grab the attack.


the main points:

① throw the ball should not be too high;

② hit the ball, the wrist force is greater than the forearm force;

③ serve the first drop point in the table, not too close to the net;

④ serve action as much as possible and serve long ball similar, so that the opponent is not easy to judge.


(D) Forehand serve and non-spin ball

Characteristics:

The ball speed is slow, the forward impulse is small, mainly with similar serve action, create rotation changes to confuse the opponent, cause the opponent to receive the ball error or create opportunities for their own attack.

the main points:
  • ① throw the ball should not be too high;
  • ② when serving the ball, the face of the shot slightly back suppressed, cut the ball in the lower part; the more the ball is turned, the more attention should be paid to the arm forward action;
  • ③ when serving the ball does not turn, hit the ball instantly reduce the angle of the face back, increase the power of the forward push.

(E) forehand to send the left side up (down) spin ball

1、Features: left side up (down) spin force is strong, the opponent block the ball to its right side up (down) side rebound, generally stand in the middle line to the left or side serve.
2, the main points: ① serve to close the abdomen, the hitting point is not far from the body; ② try to increase the amplitude and arc from the right to the left swing to enhance the strength of the side spin. ③When serving the left side topspin, the wrist should be closed in quickly at the moment of hitting the ball, and the racket should be rubbed from the middle of the ball to the upper left. ④Send the left side downward rotation, the racket face is slightly tilted back, and the racket rubs from the lower middle of the ball to the lower left.

(F) The backhand sends the right side up (down) spin ball
Features:

The right side up (down) spin ball force is strong, the opponent blocked, to its left side up (down) rebound. The ball landing point to the left side of the diagonal long ball with the center right near the net short ball is good.

Key points:
  • ① pay attention to the abdominal and waist turning action;
  • ② make full use of the wrist rotation with forearm force;
  • ③ when serving the right side top-spin ball, hit the ball instantly racket from the middle of the ball to the upper right friction, wrist has an up hook action;
  • ④ when serving the right side down-spin ball, racket face slightly backward, hit the ball instantly racket from the lower middle of the ball to the right side down friction.

(G) Squatting serve

Features:

Squat serve belongs to the overhand category, Chinese athletes began to use it as early as the 1950s. The cross-court player is more convenient than the straight-court player to serve the squat ball, the straight-court player needs to change the grip method, that is, the index finger moved to the back of the racket. The squat serve can send out left and right spins, which is a great threat when the opponent does not adapt to the situation, and when it is crucial to send out a high quality ball, it can often score directly.

Key points:
  • ① Pay attention to the coordination of throwing and swinging movements, and master the time of hitting the ball.
  • ②Serve the ball to have quality, serve action to be sharp, to prevent the opponent has been grabbed when not yet fully stand up.
  • ③Serve squat right side up and down, left foot slightly in front, body slightly deflected to the right, swing the racket route from the left back to the right front. The middle of the racket touching the ball to the right side of the friction for the right side of the upper spin; from the lower part of the ball to the right side of the friction for the right side of the lower spin.
  • ④When sending squat left side top and bottom spin balls, the middle of the right side of the stand is slightly flat to the upper left side, the body is basically facing the table, and the swing line is from the right back to the left front. The racket touches the ball and rubs the left side upward; from the middle of the ball to the lower left side rubs the left side downward.
  • ⑤Send the left (right) side of the upper and lower spin ball, pay special attention to quickly do semi-circular friction ball action.

(H) Forehand high throwing serve

characteristics:

the most significant feature is the high throwing ball, increase the ball down on the positive pressure of the shot, serve fast, impulse, rotation changes, after the table corner flight. But high throwing serve action is complicated, there is a certain degree of difficulty.

Key points:
  • Do not throw the ball too far from the table and body.
  • Hitting point with the net or slightly lower than the net, in the right of the waist (15 cm) is good.
  • Try to increase the amplitude and arc of the inward swing.
  • Serve the left side top and bottom spin ball with the same low throwing serve.
  • After touching the ball, attach a recovery action to the right front, which can increase the opponent’s judgment (combined with serving the right side spin ball, it is more powerful).

Main Tactics

Push Attack


Features: The main use of the speed and power of the forehand attack and backhand push block, and combined with the change of landing point and rhythm change to suppress and mobilize the opponent, in order to strive for the initiative or score. Push attack tactics are the main tactics of left pushing and right attacking against attacking style of play, two-sided attacking players with backhand pushing and blocking ability, attacking and chipping combination players also often use it.


Methods
  • 1、Push left and attack right.
  • 2、Push blocking side attack.
  • 3、Push block, side attack and then pounce on the forehand.
  • 4、Left push combined with backhand attack.
  • 5、Push left, backhand attack, side attack and then lunge forehand.

Cautions
  • 1, push, attack are to have line changes, landing point changes and tempo changes, which is the main way to push the attack tactics for the initiative and create the opportunity to kill.
  • 2, push block generally to press the opponent’s backhand, and then suddenly change the forehand to create offensive opportunities. If the opponent’s forehand is poor, only then can push the opponent’s forehand mainly.
  • 3, in the push block suddenly increase the force to push the opponent’s middle, so that the opponent is difficult to force to return, and then use the forehand or side buckle.
  • 4, when encountering the opportunity ball to decisively kill, which is the main means of pushing the attack tactics to score.
  • 5, push attack tactics to adhere to the near table, and can not hold the near table, to learn the position of the near and middle table to switch, master the opponent’s rhythm.
  • 6, push attack tactics against the arc circle type of play should adhere to the main near table, with fast push and plus or minus force push blocking control of the drop, waiting for the opportunity to use the near table back pull or medium power to kill the arc circle ball, and then into the forehand continuous attack.

Two-sided attack

Features: The main use of the speed and power of the forehand and backhand attacking techniques to suppress the opponent, to fight for the initiative and create opportunities to kill. The two-sided attack technique is the main tactic of two-sided attacking play against attacking style of play.


Methods.
  • Attack left and buckle right.
  • attacking the two corners, the middle of the fierce buckle.

Cautions
  • 1, forehand and backhand attack ball should have line changes and landing point changes, in order to create the opportunity to kill.
  • 2, to press the opponent’s backhand, and then attack the opponent’s forehand or middle, in order to create the opportunity to kill.
  • 3, when encountering the opportunity ball to boldly kill.
  • 4, two-sided attack tactics in the case of active attack to adhere to the near table, passive situations can be appropriate back, in the near or middle table for counterattack.
  • 5, two-sided attack tactics against the arc ball play should adhere to the near table, with a fast belt top the opponent’s arc ball, waiting for the opportunity to use the near table back pull or medium power to kill the arc ball, and then turn into a continuous attack.

Pull Attack

Characteristics: Continuous use of forehand fast pull to create offensive opportunities, then use blitz and kill as a means of scoring. Pulling is the main tactic of fast attack against chipping type of play.


Methods


1、Forehand pull and then kill.
2, backhand pull after the kill.


Points to note


1, pull, buckle the power to have a large disparity, in order to make the opponent caught off guard.
2, pull the ball to have line and landing point changes to mobilize the other side, for the initiative and create offensive opportunities.
3、When encountering the opportunity ball to boldly kill or blitz.
4、Patience should be used in pulling and attacking tactics, don’t be in a hurry and don’t be too aggressive to the unsure chance balls.

Combination of pulling, buckling and hanging

Features.
Combination of pull attack and short ball, is a common tactic for fast attack type of play against chipping.

Methods.

1、Put the short ball after the snap or blitz of the pull attack.

2、After releasing the short ball in the pull attack tactic, combine with the snapping or blitzing.

Cautions.

1, the short ball in the pull attack, to be in the opponent’s position farther and the ball is closer to the net, so that the short ball can easily fall close to the net, which can increase the distance and difficulty of the opponent to move forward.

2, put the short ball after the kill, if the opponent is very close to the table, can be aimed at the opponent’s body direction kill, so that the opponent can often make it difficult to give up the position to fight back.

Rub attack

Features


The main use of the “turn, low, fast, change” ball rubbing control of the opponent, in order to find opportunities, and then the use of low sudden, fast or pull attack and other techniques to start the offensive and into a continuous attack; in the rubbing ball encounter opportunities to kill the ball, often with a sudden, often can be scored directly. The roll attack tactic is an indispensable auxiliary tactic for all kinds of table tennis playing styles.


Methods.

Forehand and backhand rubbing combined with backhand fast pulling, fast, blitzing or snapping.


Notes.
  • 1, rub attack tactics should be as early as possible to start the board, in order to fight for the initiative, but can not have impatience, otherwise, the board is easy to miss.
  • 2, in the rubbing ball encounter opportunity ball to boldly kill, this is the main means of rubbing attack tactics to score.
  • 3, in the rubbing short in the short, can make the other party is not easy to preempt the attack, so it is conducive to creating opportunities to attack, in order to wait for the opportunity to attack with the forehand, backhand or side.

Counter attack in chipping

Features:

Combination of chipping and attacking, often to force the corner plus turn chipping, waiting for an opportunity to counter-attack; or to turn, low, stable, change the chipping, forcing the opponent to pull in the movement of the attack, in order to find opportunities to counter-attack. This tactic has the characteristics of “forcing, changing, fierce, attacking”, and is the main technique of combining attacking and chipping.


Methods:


1, forehand and backhand chipping to force the corner, combined with the forehand attack or side attack the opponent’s right side of the open space.
2, forehand and backhand chipping two big corner long balls, combined with forehand and backhand counterattack.


Cautions.
  • 1, forehand and backhand chipping should pay attention to the change of rotation strength. After chipping with spin, chipping with a similar technique to chipping with spin is an effective way to make the opponent pull out a high ball for a counter-attack.
  • 2, when chipping the ball should be as low as possible arc, in order to avoid the opponent killing or blitz.
  1. When chipping the ball to force the corner, you should properly match the other corner to make the opponent hit the ball on the move.

Serve and grab

Features.


Serve and grab tactics is to rotate, line, landing point and different speed of the serve to increase the difficulty of the opponent’s return, so that the opportunity ball, or reduce the quality of the return, and then preempt the attack for the initiative or direct score, which is the main tactics and scoring means of all table tennis playing style, especially offensive playing style.


Methods.
  • 1、Send down spin and “no spin” to attack.
  • 2、Send forehand and backhand running ball to attack.
  • 3、Send forehand and backhand side top and bottom spins.
  • Points to note
  • 1, serve to have line and landing point changes, in order to make the opponent before, after, left, right in the movement to receive the ball.
  • 2, after the serve to have a grab ready, in order not to lose the opportunity to grab the attack.
  • 3, what they serve, the other side may be what technology back, to do before the serve to have a good idea. In this way, in order to better prepare for the attack.
  • 4, the attack should be as fierce as possible, but not too fierce, otherwise, it will affect the hitting rate.

Receive and serve attack

Features.


Formed by a single attacking technique, offensive, variable receive and serve disadvantageous position for the active position, can also be directly scored, is a variety of table tennis playing style, especially the main tactics of the offensive style of play.
Method: Quick, fast or medium power attack for receiving and serving.


Precautions.
  • 1, due to the reception and serve attack is in the other party to take the initiative to serve, their own passive receive and serve position to take the offensive play, so the difficulty. Receiving serve attack is generally not too aggressive, to see the direction of rotation, rotation strength, and height of the incoming ball, using the appropriate method of attack. For example, if the opponent sends a downward spinning ball, the receiving and serving attack should use the lifting technique to avoid the net. At the same time, the power of attacking the ball should not be too large.
  • 2, after the end of the receiving and serving attack action, to immediately prepare for the attack or continuous attack, in order to continue to be in an active position.
  • 3、The smaller the power of the catch-and-serve attack and rush, the more attention should be paid to the route or landing point of the ball, which should generally be played in the opponent’s backhand; if the opponent’s backhand is strong and the forehand is weak, it can be played more in the opponent’s forehand.
  • 4, arc circle combined with the fast attack: the arc circle ball is the main, fast attack as a supplement, the most popular style of play today, men in this style of play may account for 80%. This is the most popular style of play today. Such as world champion Wang Liqin, Zhang Yining, former national player Qiao Hong, He Zhili, etc.
  • 5、Fast attack combined with arc circle: Fast attack is the main method, arc circle is the supplement, occupy the position closer than the former, generally one side of the reverse rubber, one side is positive rubber, raw rubber, long rubber (there are also two sides are positive rubber, raw rubber, long rubber). Such as world champions Deng Yaping and Chen Jing, world famous players Jin Xiangmei and Huang Wenguan, etc.
  • 6、Cutting in counter-attack: The style of playing which is based on passive cutting and waiting for the opportunity to counter-attack, which had monopolized the world ping in the 50s. Currently, there are fewer players engaged in this style of play, such as former national player Ding Song (more attacking and less chipping) and South Korea’s top player Joo Se-hyuk, and women’s players such as South Korea’s top player Kim Kyung-geun and national player Fan Ying.
  • 7, strange ball: there is basically no such playing method, there is no conclusive definition. Generally, it is to block the incoming ball with a collection of techniques such as long rubber cutting, knocking, arching, floating, etc., and wait for an opportunity to counter-attack (with inverted board technique). The representative figures include former national players Chen Zihe and Ni Xialian.

Technique Method

Method of movement

In terms of the general structure of movement, the attacking ball can be divided into two categories: forehand and backhand attacking ball. The attacking ball is the most important technique for fast attacking, and it is the key technique for solving the battle with strong killing power.

(A) action points (right hand for example)
  • 1, forehand attack: near the table in the right side of the position of the left foot slightly in front, the body diagonally to the table, holding the hand naturally relaxed in front of the abdomen, shoot half horizontal shape. Follow the route of the incoming ball slightly to the right side of the racket, about the same height as the table, the racket surface and the table surface about 80 degrees, forearm and table surface basic parallel. When the ball bounces up from the table, the hand holding the racket swings from the right side to the upper left front, the front arm quickly inward power with the wrist inward rotation along the sphere to do the arc swing, hit the upper middle of the ball in the rising period, hitting the ball position in the right front of the body at a forearm distance.
  • 2、Backhand attack: stand near the table with the right foot slightly in front, hold the racket hand naturally bent in front of the belly to the left, the center of gravity is biased towards the left foot. Follow the line of the incoming ball and lead the racket backwards. When the ball bounces from the table, the hand holding the racket from the left back to the right front to accelerate the swing, forearm force is the main, wrist outward, the front of the racket inclined, the center of gravity moved to the right foot, left and right chest strike the ball up period of the upper middle. The key point of attacking the ball is to swing the power and the correct and appropriate hitting point.

(B) Teaching methods


Imitate the forehand and backhand attacking action with bare hands, and experience the key points of swinging the arm, twisting the waist and changing the center of gravity. The practitioner stands near the middle of the table to the right (left), and throws himself near the end line of the right (left) corner to attack the right (left) side of the opponent’s diagonal line. Experience the forearm inward force and wrist internal (external) rotation and hitting point. Two people practicing against each other, one person throwing himself/herself to attack, the other one returning with a blocked ball, and exchange practice. Two people practicing against each other, one person attacking the ball with the forehand (backhand), the other one pushing the ball back with a block, exchange practice. Two people practice against each other, one person attacks two points with one point, the other one pushes and blocks one point with two points, and practice interchangeably. Two people attacking diagonally with forehand (backhand). Two people attacking straight lines in the middle.


(C) easy to make mistakes and correction methods


When attacking the ball with the forehand, do not dare to swing boldly, there is a pause, and the arc is not well made. Correction: Imitate swinging with bare hands to practice swinging the racket enough.
The angle between the upper arm and the body is too small. Correction: Relax the shoulders and increase the distance between the upper arm and the body.
Lift the elbow and arm. Correction: For fast attack practice on the near table, emphasize the elbow and shoulder to the back and down when hitting the ball.
Wrist down, racket perpendicular to forearm. Correction: Emphasize internal rotation of the wrist with the racket handle to the left and imitate the practice with bare hands.
Judgment of the ball’s landing point is inaccurate, and the leading action is not in place. Correction method: Do the practice of receiving the flat stroke first, and then do the practice of pushing the ball continuously to correct.
The backhand attacking ball is too early in front of the racket. Correction: Do the racket leading practice with bare hands to make the racket face lean back slightly.
Insufficient tilt in front of the racket. Correction method: Practice flat hitting serve and experience the method of wrist external rotation when hitting the ball.

Racket Shape


Racket shape includes racket face angle and racket face direction.
(A) racket face angle The racket face angle is the angle formed by the racket face and the table surface.

  • (1) The racket surface and the table surface into 90 for vertical.
  • (2) The angle between the surface of the racket and the table is less than 90 for the front tilt.
  • (3) The angle formed between the racket surface and the table surface is greater than 90 for backward.

(B) Face direction The face direction refers to the angle between the racket and the end line of the table when the racket is deflected from side to side.

Hitting area

The hitting area is the specific location where the racket touches the ball when hitting the ball, which basically coincides with the angle of the racket shape.

  • Upper part
  • Upper middle
  • Upper middle
  • Middle
  • Lower middle
  • Lower middle
  • Lower part

Hitting time


Hitting time refers to the time between the ball bouncing off the table and the ball falling back down.

  • (1) Rising period: The period when the ball has just risen from the table.
  • (2) Late stage of rise: the stage when the ball bounces up to the highest point.
  • (3) The highest point period: the ball bounces up to the highest point.
  • (4) Pre-decline: The initial stage of the ball’s descent from the highest point.
  • (5) Late Descent: The stage before the ball descends close to the ground.

Ball Path


The line of play is the line formed between the point of impact and the point of landing. The five basic lines (based on the batter) are: right diagonal, right straight, left diagonal, left straight, and middle straight. The middle straight line is always in the actual game depending on the standing position, i.e. the chasing ball, also called the middle
The middle chase.

Hitting point


The hitting point is the position of the space where the racket is in contact with the ball at the moment of hitting, which is the relative position of the hitter and contains the following three factors:

  • ① the front and back position of the ball in the body
  • ② the distance between the ball and the body
  • ③ the high and low position of the ball.

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